DARK MATTER
 
By Dem.Kallitsi

Instead of the spectacular development of technology in nowadays and the abundance of observational data, the scientific knowledge concerning the origin and fuction of cosmos, remains terribly confused. The majority of recently established theories look especially like a science fiction concept where one can easily notice a series of contradictions and a tremendous lack in natural consequence. Maybe the most important prediction recently made is Dark Matter. However astrophysicists once again are looking for its existence in a totally unrelated area of research, some of them in the most remote areas of the universe or others into the depths of the oceans. Nevertheless there is a more simple way leading virtually to the secret of Dark Matter but surprisingly went practically unnoticed so far.

In order to realise what about is Dark Matter we have first to go back as far as the days before establishing of relativity theory. As we know at that years the idea of “ether” was suggested by Hoygence, that is the fluid medium filling the universe and serving only to account for the propagation of electromagnetic waves. Of course this first idea was quite incomplete and the ether was appearing as a ghost like fluid, weightless as well as without any property to rely any experimental investigation up on it. Scientists before improving theoretically the first idea tried a little bit hastily to find this medium by carrying out some experiments led by the famous Mchelson’s one. As we know these experiments failed the idea of ether was thrown out and substituted by a modern concept suggested by relativity theory. However although this rejection of the ether idea had been celebrated as a great success, it could in fact be considered as the most terrible mistake of scientific research. The ether not only does it exist but it forms the most fundamental entity being both the spirit of the universe as well as the foundation stone the cosmos has been constructed with. After the abandonment of ether idea everything went wrong and regardless of how much reliable the nowadays modern theories seem to be, they are in reality leading the scientific research towards a dead end.

But let us see why the Mchenson’s experiment failed and the tremendous consequences of this failure .We very frequently speak in nowadays about the wavy nature of gravity field propagation but we have never realized the actual meaning of it. Indeed gravity field propagates in the form of sky waves at a finite velocity which obviously coincides with the velocity of light. This property of gravity field has nothing to do with a body being at absolute rest but it increasingly matters for a moving one. As we know for instance relativity theory predicts a series of changes in a moving material body one of them being an increasing of its mass according to the well known equation: 
 
 
-However relativity theory was never in position to explain the reason of this increasing and,although there were recently some evidence supporting strongly this prediction the increasing of mass remained a mystery. ,As a matter of fact motion has nothing to do with mass and the increasing of mass is a physically implausible effect.Matter is an absolute quantity never increasing never disappearing as well . What really happens in a moving body is not the increasing of its mass but a kind of distortion of its gravity field due to the wavy nature and the finite velocity of gravity field propagation.Specifically the agent that suffers a change through motion is the universal gravitational constant which further affects the form of gravity field. In order to realize this let us consider a material body having initially been at absolute rest in the origin o of a triangle reference system (figure 1).The equipotential surface of gravity field of the body is abviously globular ,that is the strength of gravity force is the same at the same distances around the body.So if we consider two points A and B on the x axis at a distance R from the origin o ,the intensity of gravity field is given by the well known equation E =mG/R2

Imagine now the body starts moving towards the point A at a velocity v. As it is obvious in the same time a rearranging process begins in order to restore the gravity field in any new position occupied by the moving body.Due to this process the strength of gravity field at the points A and B suffers to a change.However this change does not take place instantaneously but delays for a little bit time dt depending on the distance R and the velocity c of gravity field popagation.Thus when the change of gravity strength begins at point A the body has covered a small distance dr= vR/c being now at the point o´ . Obviously the strength of gravity remained constant at point A throughout the time the body travels the distance oo´ so the equation Eo = Eo´ holds for the points o and o´ or by substituting we have
 
 

As we realize from this equation the strength of gravity diminishes towards the direction of motion and since the mass remains constant we come in to acceptance that the agent G suffered a reduction.Indeed the reduction of intensity is due to a kind of looseness appearing in the space in front of a moving body and this looseness expresses the strength reduction of gravity constant . So if Go stands for rest value we can easily define the value of G in a moving body by substituting dr with its corresponding value

(1)
 
 
As we can notice the value of G turns to zero when the velocity of the body reaches the velocity of light.For any point n on the positive half of the globe the value of G is the following:
 
- (2)
 
 
where c stands for transmission velocity of gravity field

á is the angle nox < right
 
 
Consider now the other point B towards the opposite direction at a distance R.In this case

the distance R increases with the obvious result the simultaneous increasing of gravity strength.But towards this point the gravity field propagation takes place in a medium following the body at the same velocity therefor its propagation velocity takes the value c’= c-v .Thus we have for the point B

(3)
 
 
which means that the gravity strength approaches infinity when the velocity of the body reaches the velocity of gravity field propagation that is the velocity of light. For any point n´ of the negative portion of the globe the value of G becomes

Gn´= (4)
. On the level y,z, the values of relations (2) and (4) coincide to the following: 
 

As we can deduce from these equations the gravity field of the moving body is no longer symmetrical.Although its equipotential surface retains about a globular form,it is expending with the body moving from its center as it is depicted in the drawing bellow. (figure 2 ) That is due to a kind of inertia the gravity field cannot follow the moving body remaining behind it.

So the gravity strength in a moving body is differentiated across its surface reaching its highest value in the area behind and the lowest in the frond . Therefore when a material body is accelerated under the action of a field as its velocity increases, the accelerating force is limited gradually turning to zero as soon as the velocity reaches the velocity of light and no further acceleration is possible.On the other hand a retarding force is gradually arises in the area behind a moving body which tends to bring the body back in the previous condition of absolute rest.Due to this not uniform distribution of gravity action around the body,the vector of its total flux resultant takes an over zero value and coinsides with x axis. Its estimated value is about

Fx = 2đm( Gn´ - Gn) (5)
 
As any moving body subjects to this retarding action it is obvious that the moving body does not obey exactly the Newton’s law that is it acceleration has a lower value than that followd by the acting force as well as it is not constant depending on the velocity.Further a moving body performs a retarding motion determined by equation (5) when no force acts up on it instead of moving normally as Newton’s law states.

As we realize a moving body cannot travel faster than light not because its mass become infinite but due to the finite velocity of the field propagation and this limit exists only in the case the body is accelerated under the action of a field.If the body possesses a self propelling system for instance a rocket can be accelerated even at velocities higher than velocity of light.Nevertheless although a selfpropeling matter can be accelerated at high velocities it cannot maintain its corpuscular form and disappears.The force arising behind a moving body is irrelevant to the nature of accelerating force.It acts both as a retarding as well as a pumping force which tends to dematerialize the body and just as the velocity approaches velocity of light this action icreases enaugh so as to succeed dematerialization of the body.

By summarizing the above we could say that

a ) a moving body cannot exceed the velocity of light only in the case it is accelerated under the action of a field.

b) In the case a body is accelerated by any other force it can move even at velocities higher than velocity of light but it cannot maintain its corpuscular form turning into Dark Matter..

If we now come to the earth and apply these equations provided that the earth revolves around the sun at a velocity of 30 kilometers/sec we would find that the equipotential surface of its gravity field should not be globular but gravity strength should be differentiated across its surface between a highest and a lowest value.On the areas close to equator the difference between these values is about 0,04 % which is high enough to be measured experimentally So if the earth is really moving at the above velocity a kilogram of mass measured on areas close to equator should weight 999,8 gr at 6 o’clock in the morning and 1000,2 gr at 6 o’clock in the afternoon .Nevertheless as we know from our experience as well as it came up from accurate experimental measurements the strength of gravity across the earth’s surface as well as throughout the day remains constant. This surprising result points virtually to the fact without any means of escaping that the absolute velocity of earth,that is its velocity in respect of the surrounding ether,is zero . So what happens with earth? After a profound study of the effect it came up that the earth as well as the rest of the planets are not moving around the sun under the action of its gravity field.As a matter of fact the ether occupying all the space of planetary system is revolved around an axis passing through the sun and the planets are drifting as a kind of dust at near the same angular velocity.As we can realize there is no stream of ether on earth’s surface,and this is obviously the main reason of Mchelson’s experiment failure If there were stream of ether the equipotential surface of earth’s gravity field should not be globular. This is also the reason that the orbits of all planets are about circular. .

In general we would say that there is no real motion in the universe.Maybe only the comets and the like are moving under the action of gravity field while the rest of the stars are drifting by a stream of ether which usually revolves around an axis at some angular velocity. And this at the same time is the origin of stars creation. Before any concentration of matter a revolution of ether appears somewhere in the universe that is a kind of hurricane and a vacuum is created into its center which attracts material particles from its surrounding.If the vacuum is deep enaugh it behaves like a black hole where the attracted matter is disappeared but in case of low vacuum the attracted matter is concentrated thus forming the first spinning core. It is a little bit difficult for the matter to concentrate on its own. That is way all the stars except maybe asteroids, rotates around their own axis.Also we can notice here the incompatibility of relativity theory which considers black holes as material bodies of high density.Instead black holes are areas of extremely low material dendity that is they are real holes into the universe.

By the way i would like to refer in short to an other serious conclusion arising from the above equations.As we can notice in the first case when the moving body heads for the point A the distance R is limited and the space in front of the body seems to suffer a contraction.As a result of this contraction the value of G diminishes.On the contrary in the second case when the body removes from the point B the distance R increases and the space behind is dilated.As a result of this dilation an increasing in G value appears.That is the universal attraction constant increases when the space is dilated and diminishes when the space is contracted.

As we know recently a shift towards the red of radiations coming from the remote galaxies had been observed and scientists attributed it to a Doppler effect thus concluding that the galaxies are removing and the universe is dilated .Further based on this fact a lot of theories have been developed to account for the origin of cosmos.However once again scientists had been forced to make a very hasty conclusion that led to another tragic scientific falacy.If we had the ability to maintain a radiation for ever in any way,after a long time we would find out that this radiation appeared a shift towards the red of exactly the same value as a radiation coming from a galaxy and needing the same time to reach the earth.This means that the redshift is not due to a Doppler effect It is clearly a function of time instead of a function of removing velocity of galaxies.In fact the redshift is a degradation effect quite identical to other well known ones as the natural radioactivity and the ageing of living creatures. For some reason the radiations traveling throuth the space grow older like a living creature.Natural radioactivity is not a property of some elements only..At the time the elements were constructing there were no radioactive ones, all of them were stable.However some time the space began to change with an immediate result the gradual reduction in the value of G which affected the attracting ability of neutrons and further the instability of nuclei .Obviously all the nuclei suffer this change but the most stable resist for the time being .But as we can notice from the above equations ,the value of G increases under conditions of a dilated space what means that favorable conditions for nuclei construction instead of fission prevail. In fact the dilation phase of universe coincides with creation period.Consequently it is quite impossible for natural radioactivity to take place in a dilated space.So we are driven virtually to the fact that universe is contracted instead of dilated as we believe.

We can realize thereafter the absurdity of all these recently developed theories which are based on an extented universe as well as the tremendous confusion existing in nowadays knowledge.

Coming now back into the main point,as it arrises from the above short discription,the universe is filling with an extremely tenuous fluid substance which coincides with what we today call as Dark Matter. Recently the presence of this substance becomes more and more severe throuth observational data urguing against relativity theory which suggests the idea of an absolutely vacuum universe.Speaking about the nature of this medium we could in general consider it as the fluid form of material entity playing a controversial role in cosmos creation and function being also the carrier of electromagnetic and gravity waves.

As we know relativity theory suggests that matter disappears transformed immediately into energy.However this is in reality a physically implausible behavior.As we have stated so far matter is an absolute quantity never disappearing never increasing.It just changes its form turning into Dark Matter,that is a high density form turns into an extremely low density fluid and this change results into energy releasing.So the calculation of nuclear energy is more complicated and must be put on a new base.But this is an other subject to be discussed in detail after definition of some involved factors especially the nature of electron and the mechanism of radiation.

By considering Dark Matter as a fluid form of matter which fills every space among material particles,we can proceed into definition of its elasticity and density,based on the following simple reasoning:So far we was considering a gas as a simple congregation of molecules among which there was an absolute vacuum space. As a matter of fact a gas is a dispartion system where the molecules constitute the internal phase and Dark Matter the dispartion medium. So the properties of gas and especially elasticity we are interested in,is the result of interaction between them.Under conditions of severe interaction among molecules the elasticity of gas is mainly determined by elasticity of electrical forces.Instead under conditions of low interaction the elasticity is mainly determined by elasticity of Dark Matter.In general we could say that when the interaction among molecules of a gas approaches zero in any way,its elasticity modulus approaches a limit. This limit is the elasticity modulus of Dark Matter.

So by filling a vessel with a gas, preferably Hydrogen, and gradually reducing the pressure while measuring the intensity of a sound signal sent by a source inside,at the time the signal stops propagating the elasticity of gas equals about the elasticity of Dark Matter.

Through this method we managed to define an approximate value of elasticity modulus e= 1,54.105 CGS

By substituting in the fundamental equation of waves propagation

c2=e/d we obtain d= 1,71.10-16 gr/cm3 which expresses the density of Dark Matter. This density value is extremely low so anyone could normally think that material entity is in its majority concentrated in the material bodies making up the visual cosmos.However by taking into account the real dimentions of vacuum universe along with the calculated density value we are driven to the conclusion that material entity exists in its majority in the form of Dark Matter which exceeds 99,9%.
 

You can contact the author by e-mail:
kalitsis@compulink.gr